Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contact Us Login 
An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

  Table of Contents    
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 122-125

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis in a diabetic patient: A rare presentation

1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Mamata Dental College, Khammam, Telangana, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, CKS Teja Dental College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Date of Submission28-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance29-Dec-2018
Date of Web Publication22-Feb-2019

Correspondence Address:
Sanda Usha Rani
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Mamata Dental College, Khammam, Telangana
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_77_18

Rights and Permissions



Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fulminant fungal infection which mainly affects the immunocompromised individuals. It begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses due to the inhalation of fungal spores. The common predisposing factors include diabetes mellitus and immunosuppression. Actinomycosis is a bacterial infection caused by nonspore-forming, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacterial species of the genus Actinomyces. It is a suppurative and chronic granulomatous disease characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis and draining sinuses rarely diagnosed in humans. A case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis of the maxilla involving the palate in an uncontrolled diabetic patient is reported.

Keywords: Actinomycosis, diabetes mellitus, maxilla, mucormycosis

How to cite this article:
Rani SU, Sivaranjani Y, Kumar MP, Rao GV. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis in a diabetic patient: A rare presentation. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2019;23, Suppl S1:122-5

How to cite this URL:
Rani SU, Sivaranjani Y, Kumar MP, Rao GV. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis in a diabetic patient: A rare presentation. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Feb 8];23, Suppl S1:122-5. Available from: https://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2019/23/4/122/252738

   Introduction Top

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by fungi of the order Mucorales.[1] The first case of mucormycosis was reported by Paultauf in 1885.[2] These infections are usually noticed in individuals with immunocompromised status and they generally have uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hematological malignant disease like leukemia or are on immunosuppressive therapy.[1]

Mucormycosis represents the third most common angioinvasive fungal infection.[3] This fungus occurs in soil, manure, vegetable, fruits and as bread mold.[4] The infection begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses (PNSs) due to the inhalation of fungal spores. The infection can spread to orbital and intracranial structures either by direct invasion or through the blood vessels.[5] The fungus invades arteries leading to thrombosis that subsequently causes necrosis of hard and soft tissues.[6]

Actinomycosis in man was first described by Von Langebeck, in 1845 which was attributed to a fungus. Later in the 1960s, Waksman showed that Actinomyces was a Gram-positive bacteria.[7] Actinomycosis is a suppurative and chronic granulomatous disease characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis and draining sinuses rarely diagnosed in humans.[7],[8] It is caused by nonspore-forming, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacterial species of the genus Actinomyces.[8] It is caused by traumas of the orofacial region, extraction of a tooth or through an infected pulp cavity.[9]

A rare case with combination of rhinocerebral mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis of the maxilla in a 63-year-old male patient with uncontrolled diabetes is reported.

   Case Report Top

A 63-year-old male reported to the outpatient department with a complaint of bad breath and pain in the upper right back teeth region for 3 months. Initially, the patient was asymptomatic and then gradually noticed radiating pain to the upper jaw, nose region and the forehead. The patient is a known diabetic and hypertensive for 2 years and is under medication. Dental history revealed that he underwent extraction 15 years back. No relevant family history was reported.

Extraoral examination revealed a diffused swelling with ill-defined borders [Figure 1]. Bilateral submandibular lymph nodes were palpable, which were firm and tender on palpation.
Figure 1: Extraoral picture revealing diffused swelling with ill-defined borders

Click here to view

Intraoral examination revealed bone erosion of the maxillary arch with pseudomembranous slough. Necrotic bone was seen in the region of the palate and in the maxilla region extending from 18 to 26 region, and exposure of palate in the midline was also noticed. Missing teeth seen in relation to 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 25 and 28 [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Intraorally necrotic bone was seen in the region of the palate with bony erosion of the maxillary arch

Click here to view

Investigations were performed. The patient's blood glucose levels were tested and the fasting blood glucose level was found to be 230 mg/dl, whereas the postprandial blood glucose level was 380 mg/dl. Computerized tomography scan revealed erosion of anterior maxilla and midpalatal region [Figure 3]. PNS view revealed moth-eaten appearance involving the upper anterior alveolar ridge [Figure 4].
Figure 3: Computerized tomography scan revealed erosion of the anterior maxilla and midpalatal regions

Click here to view
Figure 4: Paranasal sinus view revealed moth-eaten appearance involving the upper anterior alveolar ridge

Click here to view

An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous thick-walled, irregularly branching nonseptate hyphae in the background of necrotic tissue at the periphery of the bony trabeculae [Figure 5]a and was seen invading into the small blood vessels, which is suggestive of mucormycosis, and the tissue showed a peripheral band of fibrosis encasing a zone of chronically inflamed granulation tissue surrounding large collections of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and colonies of microorganisms. These colonies consist of club-shaped filaments that form a radiating rosette pattern suggesting actinomycosis [Figure 5]b. Surgical excision of necrotic bone and adjacent soft tissue was done and sent for histopathological examination [Figure 6]. Histopathologic findings were in accordance with the incisional biopsy, and a final diagnosis of mucormycosis associated with actinomycosis was given.
Figure 5: (a) Histopathology revealing numerous thick-walled, irregularly branching nonseptate hyphae in the background of necrotic tissue. (b) Club-shaped filaments forming a radiating rosette pattern

Click here to view
Figure 6: Surgical excision of necrotic bone and adjacent soft tissue

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

Mucormycosis is the third invasive mycosis caused by fungi of the class zygomycetes.[3] Based on the clinical presentation and anatomic site, mucormycosis can be divided into at least six clinical categories: (1) rhino-orbito-cerebral (44%–49%), followed by (2) cutaneous (10%–19%), (3) pulmonary (10%–11%), (4) disseminated (6%–11%), (5) gastrointestinal (2%–11%) and (6) miscellaneous.[5],[10] Mucormycosis is caused by Rhizopus arrhizus species. Mucormycosis in diabetic patients has the ability to produce enzyme ketoreductase which later utilizes patient's ketone bodies for their nutrition.[6]

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis usually present with malaise, headache, facial pain, swelling and low-grade fever. The disease usually begins in the nasal mucosa or palate and extends to the PNSs spreading through the surrounding vessels.[11] If it invades the mouth, a black, necrotic eschar is found on the palate, and ischemic, necrotic turbines may be found in the nose.[12] In addition, mucormycosis can involve the retro-orbital region by direct extension. As mucormycosis develops, the fungal hyphae start to invade local tissue.[11]

Mucormycosis of the oral cavity can originate from disseminated infection where the portal of entry is by inhalation (usually through the nose) or can also result from direct wound contamination with dissemination to other viscera as a common complication. When arising from the nose and PNSs, the infection may cause palatal ulceration progressing to necrosis.[13]

Histologically, mucormycosis is characterized by extensive tissue necrosis and the presence of numerous, large (5–30 μm), thin-walled fungal hyphae, which are nonseptate, branched at right angles and have a ribbon-like appearance.[12] There is a close histopathological resemblance between the fungal hyphae of mucormycosis and aspergillosis. The differentiating feature is that the hyphae of mucormycosis are nonseptate and branch at right angles, whereas the hyphae of aspergillus species are septate, smaller in width and branch at more acute angles.[3]

The Actinomyces species are Gram-positive, pleomorhic and diphtheroidal, or more commonly, delicately filamentous. The cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominopelvic regions and central nervous system are most commonly involved in actinomycosis. Actinomycosis usually occurs in immunocompetent persons but may occur in persons with diminished host defenses.[8]

The common initial symptoms of infection are sudden onset of cervicofacial pain, swelling, erythema, edema and suppuration. Rarely regional lymphadenopathy is seen. However, lymphadenopathy and abscess formation are seen due to secondary infection.[9] Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form of actinomycosis. The most commonly involved sites are submandibular space, cheek, parotid gland, teeth, tongue, nasal cavity, gingiva, etc.[7] In general, the disease has a peak incidence in the fourth to sixth decades of life with a slight male predominance. The mandible is more commonly involved than maxilla (4:1).[14] Similarly, this patient was of middle age. Although this case was immunocompetent, actinomycosis has a predilection for causing infection in immunocompromised hosts such as malignancy, immunosuppressive drugs and diabetes.

Sulfur granules, biopsy regimens and pathologic investigation are the most significant factors in the diagnosis of actinomycosis.[7],[9] In the present case, we could not demonstrate sulfur granules probably because the infection was just transitory between the acute and chronic forms, and the mineralization might not have taken place. Further, the periphery of the central core of the rosette stained basophilic, whereas the peripheral clubs stained eosinophilic red. This established finding from other studies helped us to arrive at a definitive diagnosis.

   Conclusion Top

In summary, we present a complicated association of two uncommon diseases. Mucormycosis is a rare condition which may pose a diagnostic challenge for dental surgeons who may not be familiar with its clinical presentations. Actinomycotic infections of the cervicofacial region are uncommon, but they are important in dental practice because they may mimic more common oral disease, primarily dental-related infection mimicking a malignant disease. Hence, a proper understanding of such infections is needed as the underlying systemic conditions at many times may be quiescent and dentists may identify the debilitated status of the patient.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Pandey A, Bansal V, Asthana AK, Trivedi V, Madan M, Das A, et al. Maxillary osteomyelitis by mucormycosis: Report of four cases. Int J Infect Dis 2011;15:e66-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, Knudsen TA, Sarkisova TA, Schaufele RL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: A review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:634-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
Khan S, Jetley S, Rana S, Kapur P. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis in a diabetic female. J Cranio Maxillary Dis 2013;2:91-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
Sujatha RS, Rakesh N, Deepa J, Ashish L, Shridevi B. Rhino cerebral mucormycosis. A report of two cases and review of literature. J Clin Exp Dent 2011;3:e256-60.  Back to cited text no. 4
Garlapati K, Chavva S, Vaddeswarupu RM, Surampudi J. Fulminant mucormycosis involving paranasal sinuses: A rare case report. Case Rep Dent 2014;2014:465919.  Back to cited text no. 5
Sreenath G, Prakash AR, Kanth MR, Reddy PS, Vidhyadhari P. Rhinomaxillary mucormycosis with palatal perforation: A case report. J Clin Diagn Res 2014;8:ZD01-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
Lancella A, Abbate G, Foscolo AM, Dosdegani R. Two unusual presentations of cervicofacial actinomycosis and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2008;28:89-93.  Back to cited text no. 7
Smego RA Jr., Foglia G. Actinomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1255-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
Guvercin M, Gurler G, Goktay O, Kadir T, Gursoy B. Cervicofacial actinomycosis: A case report. Oral Health Dent Manage Black Sea Countries 2005;4:58-61.  Back to cited text no. 9
Jayachandran S, Kumar MS. Rhino orbital mucormycosis: Clinical and radiological evaluation for prognostic assessment – Case series. Univ J Pharm 2013;2:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
Bakathir AA. Mucormycosis of the jaw after dental extractions: Two case reports. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2006;6:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 11
Hingad N, Kumar G, Deshmukh R. Oral mucormycosis causing necrotizing lesion in a diabetic patient. A case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012;3:8-12.  Back to cited text no. 12
Vijayabala GS, Annigeri RG, Sudarshan R. Mucormycosis in a diabetic ketoacidosis patient. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:830-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
Rathnaprabhu V, Rajesh R, Sunitha M. Intraoral actinomycotic lesion: A case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2003;21:144-6.  Back to cited text no. 14


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]

This article has been cited by
1 The oral microbiome in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease
Andrea Tonelli, Evelyn N. Lumngwena, Ntobeko A. B. Ntusi
Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 An in vitro biofilm model system to facilitate study of microbial communities of the human oral cavity
S.-Q. An, R. Hull, A. Metris, P. Barrett, J.S. Webb, P. Stoodley
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2022; 74(3): 302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 The denture microbiome in health and disease: an exploration of a unique community
J. Redfern, L. Tosheva, S. Malic, M. Butcher, G. Ramage, J. Verran
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Rapid diagnosis of a complex oral mucosal infection using metagenomic next-generation sequencing: a case report
Yuhan Song, Fujie Song, Shangfeng Liu, Shuang Chen, Zhifeng Song
Journal of International Medical Research. 2022; 50(11): 0300060522
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Prediction models for early diagnosis of actinomycotic osteomyelitis of the jaw using machine learning techniques: a preliminary study
Sun-Gyu Choi, Eun-Young Lee, Ok-Jun Lee, Somi Kim, Ji-Yeon Kang, Jae Seok Lim
BMC Oral Health. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Current Issues and Perspectives in Antimicrobials use in Dental Practice
Luigi Santacroce, Francesca Spirito, Lucrezia Bottalico, Eleonora Lo Muzio, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Maria Assunta Potenza, Monica Montagnani, Emilio Jirillo
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2022; 28(35): 2879
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Mucocutaneous manifestations of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis: A retrospective cross-sectional study
Sonal Sachan, Swastika Suvirya, Krishna Yadav, Prashant Gupta, Abir Saraswat, Parul Verma, Usha Chandra, Balendra Pratap Singh, Shyam Chand Chaudhary, Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Atin Singhai, Kiran Preet Malhotra, Anit Parihar, Saurabh Kumar
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2022; 0: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Healthy microbiome – a mere idea or a sound concept?
L Najmanová, P Vídenská, M Cahová
Physiological Research. 2022; 71(6): 719
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Impact of refined and unrefined sugar and starch on the microbiota in dental biofilm
Pranav Chhaliyil, KaelF Fischer, Bernd Schoel, Pradheep Chhalliyil
Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. 2022; 12(5): 554
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Associated With Anterior Skull Base Actinomyces Osteomyelitis in a Pediatric Patient With Type 1 Diabetes
William Conley, Ronald E Cox, Thomas Robey
Cureus. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Bacterial infections in cancer: A bilateral relationship
Abhirup Basu, Rohini Singh, Shalini Gupta
WIREs Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Salivary nitrate/nitrite and acetaldehyde in humans: potential combination effects in the upper gastrointestinal tract and possible consequences for the in vivo formation of N-nitroso compounds—a hypothesis
Gerhard Eisenbrand, Matthias Baum, Alexander T. Cartus, Patrick Diel, Karl-Heinz Engel, Barbara Engeli, Bernd Epe, Tilman Grune, Sabine Guth, Dirk Haller, Volker Heinz, Michael Hellwig, Jan G. Hengstler, Thomas Henle, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Henry Jäger, Hans-Georg Joost, Sabine Kulling, Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Alfonso Lampen, Marcel Leist, Angela Mally, Doris Marko, Ute Nöthlings, Elke Röhrdanz, Angelika Roth, Joachim Spranger, Richard Stadler, Stefan Vieths, Wim Wätjen, Pablo Steinberg
Archives of Toxicology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Laser printing: trends and perspectives
Boris Chichkov
Applied Physics A. 2022; 128(11)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Changes in the Composition of Oral and Intestinal Microbiota After Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass and Their Impact on Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery
Tomasz Stefura, Barbara Zapala, Tomasz Gosiewski, Oksana Skomarovska, Michal Pedziwiatr, Piotr Major
Obesity Surgery. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Mucosal immunology of the ocular surface
Cintia S. de Paiva, Anthony J. St. Leger, Rachel R. Caspi
Mucosal Immunology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Microbiota in health and diseases
Kaijian Hou, Zhuo-Xun Wu, Xuan-Yu Chen, Jing-Quan Wang, Dongya Zhang, Chuanxing Xiao, Dan Zhu, Jagadish B. Koya, Liuya Wei, Jilin Li, Zhe-Sheng Chen
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy. 2022; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Wearable battery-free theranostic dental patch for wireless intraoral sensing and drug delivery
Zhenghan Shi, Yanli Lu, Shuying Shen, Yi Xu, Chang Shu, Yue Wu, Jingjiang Lv, Xin Li, Zupeng Yan, Zijian An, Chaobo Dai, Lingkai Su, Fenni Zhang, Qingjun Liu
npj Flexible Electronics. 2022; 6(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Gut-derived low-grade endotoxaemia, atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease
Francesco Violi, Vittoria Cammisotto, Simona Bartimoccia, Pasquale Pignatelli, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella
Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 A New Device for In Situ Dental Biofilm Collection Additively Manufactured by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and Vat Photopolymerization
Pernille Thestrup Rikvold, Karina Kambourakis Johnsen, Dirk Leonhardt, Andreas Mřllebjerg, Signe Maria Nielsen, Lea Benedicte Skov Hansen, Rikke Louise Meyer, Sebastian Schlafer
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Pulmonary Actinomycosis and Mucormycosis Coinfection in a Patient With Philadelphia Chromosome-positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy
Toru Fujisaki, Jiro Inagaki, Masahiko Kouroki, Yuko Honda, Toshiya Matsuishi, Junji Kamizono, Masahiro Yasui
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 2022; 44(2): e529
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the PorX response regulator associated with the type IX secretion system
Anshu Saran, Nuwani Weerasinghe, Christopher J. Thibodeaux, Natalie Zeytuni
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology Communications. 2022; 78(10): 354
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Revisiting oral thrush in South-East Asian patients: A review of published studies (2000–2020)
Alexandria Sonia Karajacob, Anis Rageh Al-Maleki, Sun Tee Tay
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2022; 51(1): 98
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Microbial community in human gut: a therapeutic prospect and implication in health and diseases
M. Dwivedi, S. Powali, S. Rastogi, A. Singh, D.K. Gupta
Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2021; 73(5): 553
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Linking the oral microbiome and salivary cytokine abundance to circadian oscillations
Anujit Sarkar, Melanie N. Kuehl, Amy C. Alman, Brant R. Burkhardt
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Machine learning to predict distal caries in mandibular second molars associated with impacted third molars
Sung-Hwi Hur, Eun-Young Lee, Min-Kyung Kim, Somi Kim, Ji-Yeon Kang, Jae Seok Lim
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Study of microbiocenosis of canine dental biofilms
Jana Kacírová, Aladár Madari, Rastislav Mucha, Lívia K. Fecskeová, Izabela Mujakic, Michal Koblížek, Radomíra Nemcová, Marián Madar
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Tongue microbiome in children with autism spectrum disorder
Ahmed Abdulhaq, Esam Halboub, Husham E. Homeida, Vinod Kumar Basode, Ahmad Hassn Ghzwani, Khalid Ammash Zain, Divyashri Baraniya, Tsute Chen, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi
Journal of Oral Microbiology. 2021; 13(1): 1936434
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Assessing saliva microbiome collection and processing methods
Abigail J. S. Armstrong, Veenat Parmar, Martin J. Blaser
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 2021; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Liquid Chromatography-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Sites in Oral Cell DNA of Cigarette Smokers, e-Cigarette Users, and Nonsmokers
Jiehong Guo, Joshua Ikuemonisan, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Stephen S. Hecht
Chemical Research in Toxicology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Functionalized Mouth-Conformable Interfaces for pH Evaluation of the Oral Cavity
Giusy Matzeu, Gili R. S. Naveh, Siddhart Agarwal, Jeffery A. Roshko, Nicholas A. Ostrovsky-Snider, Bradley S. Napier, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto
Advanced Science. 2021; 8(12): 2003416
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Paradigm shift in the pathogenesis and treatment of oral cancer and other cancers focused on the oralome and antimicrobial-based therapeutics
Allan Radaic, Sean Ganther, Pachiyappan Kamarajan, Jennifer Grandis, Sue S. Yom, Yvonne L. Kapila
Periodontology 2000. 2021; 87(1): 76
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 The wasted chewing gum bacteriome
Leila Satari, Alba Guillén, Ŕngela Vidal-Verdú, Manuel Porcar
Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Evaluation of computational methods for human microbiome analysis using simulated data
Matthieu J. Miossec, Sandro L. Valenzuela, Marcos Pérez-Losada, W. Evan Johnson, Keith A. Crandall, Eduardo Castro-Nallar
PeerJ. 2020; 8: e9688
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 In vitro Candida albicans biofilm formation on different titanium surface topographies
Mathieu Mouhat, Robert Moorehead, Craig Murdoch
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry. 2020; 7(1): 146
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (1,241 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Case Report
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded397    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 34    

Recommend this journal

© Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007