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|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 533-536
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
V Jai Santhosh Manikandan, P Sai Krishna, LS Makesh Raj, Prasanna Sekhar
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||23-Oct-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||29-Oct-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Jan-2022|
V Jai Santhosh Manikandan
NO.6 Veeramani Street, Thiruvalluvar Nagar, Pammal, Chennai - 600 075, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma characterized by a conglomerate of clinically aggressive course and disparate histopathological features. It is frequently seen in upper aerodigestive tract area. Histopathologically, it is biphasic and composed of two types of tumor cells, namely basaloid and squamous cells. Tumor markers, namely, BerEp4, epithelial membrane antigen and p53 are used in this case to differentiate from similar tumors which impersonate BSCC histologically but differ prognostically. We report a case of BSCC in a 48-year-old female patient, involving the lateral border of the tongue with an exhaustive picture of its histological and immunohistochemical appearance.
Keywords: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, BerEp4, epithelial membrane antigen, oral cavity, oropharynx, p53, squamous cell carcinoma
|How to cite this article:|
Santhosh Manikandan V J, Krishna P S, Makesh Raj L S, Sekhar P. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2021;25:533-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Santhosh Manikandan V J, Krishna P S, Makesh Raj L S, Sekhar P. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 17];25:533-6. Available from: https://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2021/25/3/533/335533
| Introduction|| |
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an aggressive and histologically distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma, first described by Wain et al. in 1986. It has a predilection for upper aerodigestive tract. It is rarely seen in oral cavity with predilection for base of the tongue. It commonly affects males usually above sixth decade. It is considered to be more aggressive when compared to classical squamous cell carcinoma, due to its frequent metastasis. The presence of ulceration makes it difficult to diagnose histopathologically, as it might mask the origin from the superficial mucosa. In the above scenario, it is prudent to use the immunohistochemistry markers which can help us in supporting the diagnosis. We are present a case of similar situation where three tumor markers are used namely p53, BerEp4 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) to establish the diagnosis.,,
| Case Details|| |
A 48-year-old female patient came with the chief complaint of difficulty in opening the mouth and painful ulcer in the tongue for the past 6 months. Medical history reveals no significant findings. The patient had no history of tobacco habits and was well built. On extraoral examination, submandibular lymph nodes were palpable on the left side which was firm in consistency. On intraoral examination, an ulceroproliferative lesion was found on the left lateral side of the tongue measuring 3 cm × 2 cm, which was firm in consistency with indurated margin.
- Overlying epithelium showed dysplastic stratified squamous epithelium infiltrating into the underlying connective tissue [Figure 1]a
- Two types of tumor cells, namely squamous cells and basaloid cells, are seen [Figure 1]b
- Tumor cells are characterized by sheets of basaloid cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scanty cytoplasm predominantly arranged in lobular pattern [Figure 1]c and [Figure 1]d
- Squamous differentiation seen in center of tumor islands [Figure 2]a
- Tumor cells show peripheral palisading [Figure 2]b, marked mitotic activity [Figure 2]c and skeletal muscle infiltration [Figure 2]d.
|Figure 1(a-d): Histopathological image shows overlying dysplastic stratified squamous epithelium infiltrating into the underlying connective in the form of sheets and lobular pattern. Tumor cells show hyperchromatic nuclei, scanty cytoplasm|
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|Figure 2(a-d): Histopathological image shows central squamous differentiation, peripheral palisading, increased mitotic activity and skeletal muscle infiltration of tumor cells|
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- Tumor cells stained positive for p53, except in the areas of squamous differentiation in the center of tumor island [Figure 3]a, [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c, [Figure 3]d
- Tumor cells stained negative for BerEp4 [Figure 4]a, [Figure 4]b, [Figure 4]c, [Figure 4]d.
- Tumor cells stained positive for EMA, except in the areas of squamous differentiation within tumor island, which stained positive for EMA [Figure 5]a, [Figure 5]b, [Figure 5]c, [Figure 5]d.
|Figure 3(a-d): Histopathological image shows tumor cells stained positive for p53 except in the areas of squamous differentiation within tumor island|
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|Figure 4(a-d): Histopathological image shows tumor cells stained negative for Ber-Ep4|
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|Figure 5(a-d): Histopathological image shows tumor cells predominantly stained negative for epithelial membrane antigen. Focal positive stain is seen in the areas of squamous differentiation|
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Differential diagnosis of BSCC is mentioned in [Table 1],,,,,,, Final diagnosis was made BSCC.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given her consent for her images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that his name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]