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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

Year : 2021  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 549-550
Histopathologic evaluation of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction: A comparative analysis based on basement membrane thickness and the distribution of mast cells

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Amrita School of Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Thara Aravind
Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Amrita School of Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Aims Campus, Kochi - 682 041, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_220_20

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Background: Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of unknown etiology with well-established clinical and microscopic features. Oral lichenoid reactions are a family of lesions triggered by contact with specific agents such as metallic restorative materials, resins and drugs. Oral lichenoid reactions share clinical and histological features of oral lichen planus (OLP) but has varied management options. Hence, the discrimination between these two lesions is a major challenge for clinicians as well as pathologists. Aim: Histopathologic categorization of OLP and oral lichenoid reaction by comparing the thickness of basement membrane and the distribution of mast cells using special stains. Materials and Methods: The test group consists of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of OLP (n = 15), and oral lichenoid reactions (n = 15) obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology, Amrita School of Dentistry. Three serial sections of 4 μm thickness were cut from each block. The sections were stained with H & E, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue, respectively. Results: A significant increase in the maximum basement membrane thickness (BMT) was noticed in OLP when compared to oral lichenoid reaction. A definite increase was also noticed in the number of mast cells in OLP and oral lichenoid reaction when compared to normal oral mucosa. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of degranulated mast cells in the deeper connective tissue in oral lichenoid reaction when compared to OLP. Conclusion: OLP and oral lichenoid reactions are two different entities showing similar clinical and microscopic presentation. The histochemical analysis of basement membrane and mast cells in these lesions might provide a more authentic method for differentiating these two lesions and might be of utmost value in deciding the treatment options.

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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007