Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contact Us Login 
An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
  Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77-81
 

Comparison of blood parameters between periodontitis patients and healthy participants: A cross-sectional hematological study


1 Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Sree Sai Dental College and Research Institute, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India
4 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission24-Sep-2021
Date of Decision06-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance21-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Rishabh Srivastava
Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Kothiwal Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_349_21

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 


Background: Bacteria and their products involved in periodontitis evoke an immunoinflammatory response in the host tissue. Inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, are often not just a local event, but may have systemic ramifications, including elevations in the numbers of circulating leukocytes, acute-phase proteins and oxidative stress markers. It is now emerging that also erythrocytes are affected by chronic inflammatory diseases. This phenomenon, named “anemia of inflammation,” is not caused by marrow deficiencies or other diseases. The present study aimed to assess whether there was any relation between chronic periodontitis and hematological parameters.
Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients were included in the study and were divided into the healthy and periodontitis groups. Blood sample was obtained from each participant for hematological analysis of leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, red blood cell (RBC) distribution width (RDW), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet count and neutrophil–leukocyte ratio (NLR). Further, the values were gathered and subjected to statistical analysis. Unpaired t-test was performed to assess the statistical significance between the groups and P < 0.05 and < 0.001 were considered to be statistically significant.
Results: Results show statistically significant difference seen in leukocytes, lymphocytes, RDW, MCV, platelet count and NLR which was higher in patients with periodontitis, all other parameters are nonsignificant.
Conclusion: Thus, within limitations, it can be concluded that increased levels of leukocytes, lymphocytes, RDW, MCV, platelet count and NLR depict the inflammatory state and destructive nature of periodontitis.


Keywords: Blood, blood cells, health, periodontitis


How to cite this article:
Bhattacharya HS, Srivastava R, Gummaluri SS, Agarwal MC, Bhattacharya P, Astekar MS. Comparison of blood parameters between periodontitis patients and healthy participants: A cross-sectional hematological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2022;26:77-81

How to cite this URL:
Bhattacharya HS, Srivastava R, Gummaluri SS, Agarwal MC, Bhattacharya P, Astekar MS. Comparison of blood parameters between periodontitis patients and healthy participants: A cross-sectional hematological study. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 26];26:77-81. Available from: https://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2022/26/1/77/341403





   Introduction Top


Periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microbes.[1] These microorganisms induce an inflammatory reaction in the host tissue for their survival, replication or multiplication that is accomplished by the release of various virulent factors.[2] For neutralizing this, the body also induces the host response to fight against these pathogens. This host response shows possible mechanism of the relationship between periodontal infection and systemic disorders.[3]

Sulcular epithelium of gingiva always acts as a protective barrier which prevents the entry of the microorganism and other irritants into the systemic circulation which is one of the life savior mechanisms. Periodontopathogens which accumulate in the sulcus due to plaque and calculus deposits cause ulceration of this sulcular epithelium. These ulcerations provide a passage for these bacteria to enter the systemic circulation.[2] This bacteremia causes low-grade systemic inflammation. Studies such as Kweider et al. 1993,[4] Ebersole et al. 1997,[5] Wakai et al. 1999,[6] Slade et al. 2000[7] and Loos et al. 2000[8] concluded that periodontitis is associated with the elevated levels of the C-reactive protein and white blood cells.[9] Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is defined as anemia occurring in the chronic infection, inflammatory condition and neoplastic condition that is not due to marrow deficiencies and the other diseases and occurring despite the presence of adequate iron store and vitamin study reference article and this phenomenon is known as anemia of inflammation (AI). It is mediated by the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) which ultimately leads to reduced erythropoiesis and shortened the erythrocytes life. A study done by the Nibali et al. 2019[10] which shows there is depression in the erythrocytes number in the patients with chronic periodontitis, another study done by the Hutter et al. in 2001[9] which also shows that patients with chronic periodontitis show the sign of anemia. It is now become apparent that erythrocytes also get affected by chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis.

Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between the periodontitis and hematological parameters. The null hypothesis is that there is no association between the leukocytes count, erythrocytes count and platelet count and periodontitis.


   Materials and Methods Top


Sample size calculation

Based on G*Power software version 3.1.9.7, (Heinrich-Heine-University, Germany), when the power of the study was kept as 80%, effect size of 0.6 and alpha error value as 5%, the sample size required for conduction of the study was 72. For better analysis of results, the sample size of 80 patients was considered in the present study.

Study design and patient recruitment

The present study was a cross-sectional hematological study. Initially, 120 patients were screened, and finally, a total of 80 participants were selected in the study, 40 patients were eliminated as they did not meet the inclusion criteria and not interested to take part in the study. The present study participants were recruited from the outpatient Department of Periodontics, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. After the obtainment of ethical clearance from the institutional ethical committee and informed consent from participants, the study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 modified in 2000. Patients under the periodontitis group (21 males and 19 females) had a mean age of 41.8 ± 10.28 years and the healthy control group (19 males and 21 females) had a mean age of 36.93 ± 8.24 years [Table 1].
Table 1: depicts the mean age and gender wise distribution along with statistical significance among both the groups.

Click here to view


Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteria for the periodontitis patients were the presence of the periodontal pocket of ≥6 mm on at least one site according to recent 2017 classification of periodontal disease by the American Academy of Periodontology,[11] with radiographic evidence of bone loss on an orthopantomogram [Figure 1], the absence of any systemic disease and no history of periodontitis treatment within 6 months. Further, healthy patients were included by the absence of the periodontal pocket and patients should be systemically healthy. Exclusion criteria for all the patients were known systemic diseases (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, malignancy, etc.), history and/or the presence of any other infections, systemic antibiotic treatment in the preceding 3 months, long-term treatment with any medication suspected to affect the periodontium (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), patients who are smoker, pregnant or lactating females and <20 teeth present.
Figure 1: Depicts the orthopantomogram's of the healthy and periodontitis group (a and b)

Click here to view


Clinical parameters

Probing pocket depth measurements were done by an individual examiner (RS) using the University of North Carolina Probe (UNC) 15 probe (Hu-Friedy, USA) [Figure 2]. Before final measurements of the study, 10 periodontitis patients whose data were not included in the present study were considered for probing and measurements performed 72 h apart and values were considered for 90% agreement if the difference range is within ±1 mm.[12]
Figure 2: Depicts the pocket depths of periodontitis (a) and healthy group (b)

Click here to view


Blood parameters and sampling

Blood sampling and analysis were done in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. For both the groups, blood samples were obtained from each patient through venipuncture of the right arm during the examination visit. The samples were collected and analyzed for the number of leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb%), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), neutrophil–lymphocytes ratio (NLR) (NLR = total neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count), RBC distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), number of platelets.

Statistical analysis

After gathering the data of the hematological parameters of the patients that were included in the study, the entire data were tabulated in the Excel spreadsheet. Unpaired t-test was used to check the statistical significance. The mean standard deviation was calculated for all the parameters in both the groups and P was kept as < 0.05 as significant and < 0.001 as highly significant


   Results Top


The mean age and gender-wise distribution of both the groups were depicted as demographic data where the significant difference (P = 0.022) was obtained regarding age and values were nonsignificant (P = 0.654) regarding gender in both the groups [Table 1]. Regarding the mean total leukocyte counts, mean lymphocyte percentages and mean MCV statistical significance difference (P = 0.03, P = 0.027 and P = 0.019) were reported for the chronic periodontitis group than the health group. Further, values were high statistically significant for RDW% (P < 0.001) and MPV (P < 0.001), while for the remaining parameters, there was no statistical significance recorded (P > 0.05) when both the groups were compared [Table 2].
Table 2: depicts the statistical comparison of various haematological parameters with periodontitis and healthy groups.

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Anemia is considered one of the most common global public health problems. It usually occurs in about 25% of the population globally. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anemia[13] and periodontitis is an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth causing progressive attachment and bone loss.[14] It was shown that long-standing chronic inflammatory disease can lead to anemia, and this anemia is known as ACD.[15],[16] Previous studies by Hutter et al. 2001 and Gokhale et al. 2010[2],[9] suggested that anemia is an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. As much as the number of studies was not performed for confirmation, the present study was conducted to rule the possible relation regarding the levels of blood parameters in periodontitis patients and healthy periodontium.

In the present study, smokers were excluded because smoking is considered the cofounding factor for the development of periodontitis. Smoking affects the immune system and microflora of the oral cavity causing deeper probing depth and greater attachment loss and bone loss.[17],[18] Nicotine also alters the neutrophils function such as phagocytosis, superoxide production and protease inhibitor production. Smoking also affects erythrocytes count and other blood parameters. A study by Erdemir et al.[19] also supported the statement where smokers with chronic periodontitis have a lower number of erythrocytes count, lower value of Hb and lower HCT compared to nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis.

In the present study, leukocyte count is more in the periodontitis group than in the healthy group which is in accordance with the previous study by Kwon et al. 2016 demonstrating increased leukocyte count in the patient with chronic periodontitis, especially in the number of the neutrophils and lymphocytes. This increase in the number is the typical response of the periodontitis which occurs as a part of the inflammatory cascade, initiated by the accumulation of the periodontopathogens which are present subgingivally.[20]

The result of the present study regarding decreased RBC, Hb%, MCH, MCHC and HCT was in accordance with the previous study done by Siebert et al. 2015[21] where they have concluded that which there is decrease in hematological parameters in periodontitis patients. Lower value of the HCT can be attributed to the lower number of erythrocytes. This depressed erythropoiesis by systemically circulating proinflammatory cytokines was resulted from a local chronic inflammatory process. Thus, proinflammatory cytokines were thought to act as mediators in suppressing erythropoiesis from the bone marrow leading to anemia. Cytokines such as IL-1 alpha, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ((TNF-a) have been related to the suppression of erythropoiesis. TNF-a administration to animals by intermittent injections or implantation of TNF-a-producing cells resulted in the development of anemia. Thus, the above results were even supported by previous studies[2],[9] where the relation between periodontitis and AI has been demonstrated and reported a reduced RBC count, HB%, MCH, MCHC, HCT and packed cell volume in patients with periodontitis.

In the present study, although the number of RBC decreased in periodontitis patients, the results do not show any statistical difference. Similar result was obtained in the level of Hb and this was attributed due to the lower number of RBCs or due to the iron-binding protein hepcidin which may be related to the reduced amount of circulating Hb. Hepcidin increases its activity in the bloodstream due to inflammatory stimulus leading to the internalization and closure of ferroportin channels, found on the surface of cells, preventing the iron output to the plasma and resulting in the reduction of Hb formation.[22] MCH and MCHC values were slightly lower in periodontitis patients but did not reach statistical significance. Generally, it is known that depressed MCV values show microcytic anemia and increased MCV show macrocytic anemia, while in the present study, the value of MCV is more in the periodontitis patients but remains in the normal range.

In the present study, the platelet count and mean platelet values were higher in patients with periodontitis when compared to the healthy individuals and the results are in accordance to the previous study by Romandini et al., 2018[23] where they have concluded that there was increase in the platelet count in the patient with periodontitis. It has been demonstrated that dental plaque bacteria, including the periodontal pathogen induces platelet activation and aggregation and the main etiology of the periodontitis is the periodontal pathogens this will cause the activation of the platelets.[24] In the present study, the NLR was found to be higher in the chronic periodontitis patient and this was in accordance with the study of Rejec et al. 2017,[25] in which there was also increase in the NLR in the patient suffering from chronic periodontitis. Increase NLR shows the initial innate mechanism which triggers the adaptive immune response and results in the destruction of the periodontal tissue.[26]

The results of the present study confirm the relation between periodontitis and anemia. However, the following limitations of the present study need to be fulfilled in future studies for the establishment of better outcomes. First, the lesser sample size as the larger samples size gives more significant results or the clear relation between periodontitis and blood parameters. Second, the comparison of the pretherapeutic and the posttherapeutic changes in the blood parameters of the patients suffering from periodontitis, this would add in our understanding about the changes in the blood parameters in periodontal disease.


   Conclusion Top


Thus, within limitations, it can be concluded that chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis may cause anemia as the patients suffering from periodontitis having a lower number of erythrocytes, Hb, HCT value, MCH and MCHC. The low-grade inflammation may cause marked leukocytosis due to increase in the number of leukocytes and neutrophils. However, future studies are necessary to draw a definite conclusion.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Listgarten MA. Pathogenesis of periodontic. J Clin Periodontol 1986;13:418-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gokhale SR, Sumanth S, Padhye AM. Evaluation of blood parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis for signs of anemia. J Periodontol 2010;81:1202-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Pradeep AR, Anuj S. Anemia of chronic disease and chronic periodontitis: Does periodontal therapy have an effect on anemic status? J Periodontol 2011;82:388-94.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kweider M, Lowe GD, Murray GD, Kinane DF, McGowan DA. Dental disease, fibrinogen and white cell count; links with myocardial infarction? Scott Med J 1993;38:73-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ebersole JL, Machen RL, Steffen MJ, Willmann DE. Systemic acute-phase reactants, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin, in adult periodontitis. Clin Exp Immunol 1997;107:347-52.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wakai K, Kawamura T, Umemura O, Hara Y, Machida J, Anno T, et al. Associations of medical status and physical fitness with periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 1999;26:664-72.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Slade GD, Offenbacher S, Beck JD, Heiss G, Pankow JS. Acute-phase inflammatory response to periodontal disease in the US population. J Dent Res 2000;79:49-57.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Loos BG, Craandijk J, Hoek FJ, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, van der Velden U. Elevation of systemic markers related to cardiovascular disease in the peripheral blood of periodontitis patients. J Periodontol 2000;71:1528-34.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hutter JW, van der Velden U, Varoufaki A, Huffels RA, Hoek FJ, Loos BG. Lower numbers of erythrocytes and lower levels of hemoglobin in periodontitis patients compared to control subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28:930-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Nibali L, Darbar U, Rakmanee T, Donos N. Anemia of inflammation associated with periodontitis: Analysis of two clinical studies. J Periodontol 2019;90:1252-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Caton J, Armitage G, Berglundh T, Chapple I, Jepsen S, Kornman K. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions – Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. J Clin Periodontol 2018;25:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gummaluri SS, Bhattacharya H, Astekar M, Cheruvu S. Evaluation of titanium prepared platelet rich fibrin and leukocyte platelet rich fibrin in the treatment of intrabony defects: A randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2020;14:83-91.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, de Benoist B. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993-2005. Public Health Nutr 2009;12:444-54.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Lindhe J, Ranney R, Lamster I, Charles A Chung C P, Flemmig T, Kinane D, et al. Consensus report. Chronic periodontitis. Ann Periodontol 1999;4:38-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Barrett-Connor E. Anemia and infection. Am J Med 1972;52:242-53.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Fuchs D, Hausen A, Reibnegger G, Werner ER, Werner-Felmayer G, Dierich MP, et al. Immune activation and the anaemia associated with chronic inflammatory disorders. Eur J Haematol 1991;46:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Relationship of cigarette smoking to attachment level profiles. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28:283-95.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Bergström J. Tobacco smoking and risk for periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 2003;30:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Erdemir EO, Nalcaci R, Caglayan O. Evaluation of systemic markers related to anemia of chronic disease in the peripheral blood of smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. Eur J Dent 2008;2:102-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Kwon YJ, Jeon KJ, Chung TH, Lee YJ. Elevated leukocyte count is associated with periodontitis in Korean adults: The 2012-2014 KNHANES. Oral Dis 2017;23:241-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Siebert S, Tsoukas A, Robertson J, McInnes I. Cytokines as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Pharmacol Rev 2015;67:280-309.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Arezes J, Nemeth E. Hepcidin and iron disorders: New biology and clinical approaches. Int J Lab Hematol 2015;37:92-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Romandini M, Laforí A, Romandini P, Baima G, Cordaro M. Periodontitis and platelet count: A new potential link with cardiovascular and other systemic inflammatory diseases. J Clin Periodontol 2018;45:1299-310.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Lourbakos A, Yuan Y, Jenkins A, Travis J, Andrade-Gordon P, Santulli R, et al. Activation of proteaseactivated receptors by gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis leads to platelet aggregation: A new trait in microbial pathogenicity. Blood 2001;97:3790-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Rejec A, Butinar J, Gawor J, Petelin M. Evaluation of complete blood count indices (NLR, PLR, MPV/PLT, and PLCRi) in healthy dogs, dogs with periodontitis, and dogs with oropharyngeal tumors as potential biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response. J Vet Dent 2017;34:231-40.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Acharya A, Shetty I, Jain S, Padakannaya I, Acharya S, Shettar L, et al. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in chronic periodontitis before and after nonsurgical therapy. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2019;23:419-23.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
            

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (1,083 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed306    
    Printed2    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded38    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007