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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists

REVIEW ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 534-540
Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking on buccal mucosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Faculty of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Dental Graduates, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 General Dentist, MOH, Thadiq General Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4 General Dentist, MOH, Al-Muzahmiyah General Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
5 General Dentist, MOH, Prince Saud Bin Jalawi Hospital, Alahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Nishath S Abdul
Faculty of Oral Pathology, Department of OMFS & Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_292_22

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Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an issue all over the world, although it is particularly prevalent in the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. The genotoxic effects of smoking were reported to be associated with nucleus abnormalities such as micronuclei (MN), karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis, pyknosis, binucleates, broken eggs, condensed chromatin in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells, and was believed to be associated with apoptosis of cells and was not correlated to the exposure time. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cigarette and WTS on buccal mucosa. Materials and Methods: The pertinent search was done through the computerized literature on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED databases, which included case-control, clinical and observational studies regarding the mutagenic effects of cigarettes and WTS in oral tissues. The retraction of data in this study was undertaken from May 2010 to May 2022. A total of 60 articles from the search data were retrieved. This investigation was registered with the research center of Riyadh Elm University for institution review board approval (IRB) and obtained the IRB number “FRP/2021/448/733/707 and the systematic review registration number with respect to PROSPERO is 345417. Results: After the removal of duplicates, 32 were evaluated for the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of 32 articles, twenty studies were evaluated for cytogenetic abnormalities in buccal mucosal cells of waterpipe tobacco smokers (WTS) and cigarette smokers, and 12 were excluded. The mean MN levels in the oral tissues of WTS were more (1.94 ± 0.39) than in non-smokers (1.68 ± 0.35). Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that the MN count can be employed as a biomarker and preliminary signal for the identification of changes in oral mucosa among smokers, which develop towards cancer formation.

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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007