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An Official Publication of the Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathologists


 
  Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 24-27
 

Benign scalp lesion: An unusual presentation of B cell- lymphoblastic lymphoma – A case report


1 Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission06-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance27-Jun-2022
Date of Web Publication04-Feb-2023

Correspondence Address:
Sadaf Khan
Department of Pathology, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Shri Mahant Indresh Hospital, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_278_21

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   Abstract 


This case report highlights the occurrence of B- cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) as a solitary cutaneous lesion without an existing systemic involvement and should be kept in the differentials while dealing with cases presenting with a similar clinical picture. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a painful, progressively enlarging swelling in right zygomatico-temporal region, clinically simulated a deep fungal infection/ granulomatous lesion and turned out to be a case of B-LBL without any systemic involvement on further work up. This case is being reported to emphasize that B-LBL should be considered as a differential for an otherwise benign appearing persistent lesion in the head and neck region.


Keywords: B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, benign, cutaneous, non-Hodgkin lymphoma


How to cite this article:
Kudva R, Khan S. Benign scalp lesion: An unusual presentation of B cell- lymphoblastic lymphoma – A case report. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2023;27, Suppl S1:24-7

How to cite this URL:
Kudva R, Khan S. Benign scalp lesion: An unusual presentation of B cell- lymphoblastic lymphoma – A case report. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Mar 27];27, Suppl S1:24-7. Available from: https://www.jomfp.in/text.asp?2023/27/5/24/369174





   Introduction Top


Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), arising from precursor T or B lymphocytes comprising 5% of all NHL.[1] Out of these, approximately <20% of the cases have cutaneous LBL at the time of presentation.[1],[2] Most of the already reported cases with cutaneous lesions represent secondary cutaneous involvement by existing systemic precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) or leukaemia rather than a primary cutaneous disease.[3] The morphological features of lymphoblastic lymphomas are similar to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

A 13-year-old girl presented with a benign-looking painful swelling on the zygomato-temporal region since nine months which clinically simulated a deep fungal infection/granulomatous lesion and turned out to be primary B-LBL.

This case is being reported to emphasize that B-LBL should be considered a differential for an otherwise benign-looking persistent lesion in the head and neck regions.


   Case history Top


We report a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a painful, progressively enlarging swelling in the right zygomato-temporal region for nine months. There was no associated history of fever/diplopia/headache/vomiting and/or weight loss.

On clinical examination, the swelling was tender and measured 5 × 5 cm; the overlying skin was erythematous and fixed to the swelling [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Swelling over right zygomato-temporal region, measuring 5 × 5 cm with overlying fixed erythematous skin

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The total leukocyte count was 6400 cells/μL, and there were no abnormal cells in the peripheral smear.

Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed, and it microscopically showed a few atypical lymphoid cells following which a trucut biopsy was sent for histopathological examination; however, it was inadequate for opinion.

Later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was performed, which revealed a well-defined lobulated extracalvarial homogeneously enhancing altered signal intensity lesion in the right frontotemporal convexity appearing isointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 weighted images. No evidence of intraparenchymal extension or bone erosion was noted. The radiological examination was suggestive of extracalvarial meningioma/lymphoma.

Excision of the swelling was planned under general anaesthesia; tumour showed adhesions to the underlying tissues; frozen section was sent intraoperatively which showed a tumour composed of monomorphic population of medium-sized lymphoid cells suggestive of NHL. A portion of the tumour was sent for histopathological examination, and the lesion was closed by placing a partial thickness skin graft from the right thigh over the raw area.

Grossly, a skin covered tissue mass weighing 38 g and measuring 6.5 × 5.5 × 2 cm was received in the department of pathology. Externally the skin showed an ulcer measuring 1.5 × 0.8 cm, and the cut section showed a tumour composed of homogeneous grey–white areas [Figure 2]a and [Figure 2]b. Microscopically, the sections showed thinned out epidermis with subepidermal oedema, haemorrhage and a grenz zone in the papillary dermis [Figure 3]a. The dermis showed nodules and cords of tumour cells extending into the subcutaneous tissue [Figure 3]b, composed of diffuse infiltration of monomorphic population of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scant cytoplasm, round to irregular nuclei, fine chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli [Figure 4]. Immunohistochemistry was performed; tumour cells showed diffuse positivity for CD20, CD99, Tdt [Figure 5]a, [Figure 5]b, [Figure 5]c, and negativity for CD3 and MPO. Ki-67 proliferation index was 75% [Figure 5]d.
Figure 2: (a) Grossly, a skin covered tissue mass measuring 6.5 × 5.5 × 2 cm with overlying skin showed an ulcer measuring 1.5 × 0.8 cm. (b) Cut section of the mass showed a tumour composed of homogeneous grey–white areas

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Figure 3: (a) Microscopically, thinned out epidermis with subepidermal oedema and a grenz zone in the papillary dermis seen (H&E ×100). (b) The dermis showed nodules and cords of tumour cells extending into the subcutaneous tissue (H&E ×100)

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Figure 4: High power view showed diffuse infiltration of monomorphic population of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scant cytoplasm, round to irregular nuclei, fine chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli (H&E ×200)

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Figure 5: (a) The lymphoid cells express diffuse nuclear positivity for Tdt immunostain (Tdt ×100). (b) Diffuse membrane positivity for CD99 (CD99 ×100). (c) Diffuse membrane positivity for CD20 (CD20 ×200) and (d) Ki67 proliferation index of 75% (Ki67 ×200)

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Based on the microscopy and immunohistochemistry, a final diagnosis of 'Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma–B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma' was furnished.

The patient was advised chemotherapy; however, she was lost to follow up.


   Discussion Top


Skin is the second most common site of extranodal NHL following the gastrointestinal tract, with an estimated annual incidence of 1:100,000.[4],[5] Lymphoblastic lymphomas constitute approximately 3.5%–7% of all malignant lymphomas of the skin.[5],[6] Precursor lymphoblastic lymphoma is a neoplastic proliferation of either precursor T or B cells. Both the subtypes have varying clinical presentation with involvement of either blood or bone marrow, termed leukaemia or involvement of solid tissues, termed lymphoma. According to the World Health Organization's Classification of Tumours: pathology and genetics of skin tumours, B-LBL secondarily involves the skin. Precursor B-LBL is an uncommon form of lymphoblastic lymphoma that accounts for less than 10% of all lymphoblastic lymphoma cases.[3],[7] T-LBL, the comparatively commoner variant, shows a male predominance and B-LBL though thought to have a male predominance, but according to many of the previously reported cases cutaneous B-LBL shows a slight female preponderance.[8],[9],[10] B-LBL has a predilection for the head and neck regions.[8]

Our case presented with involvement of skin over the head as the primary extranodal lesion, but did not involve any other sites. Till date, 38 cases of primary cutaneous B-LBL without extracutaneous involvement have been reported in the literature[8] and this is the 39th case. According to Song et al.,[8] the median age of all the previously reported cases was six years at the time of diagnosis (range 2 months to 14 years), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.4.

Based on clinical and radiological imaging findings, these lesions with soft-tissue scalp swelling with/without cranial vault involvement and underlying intracranial extension can simulate meningioma and should be kept in the differentials as the treatment and prognosis of both the entities vary.

On microscopic examination, B-LBL can present a diagnostic challenge by virtue of its resemblance to other lymphoid malignant neoplasms and small round blue cell tumours involving the skin as given in [Table 1].[11] The abnormal lymphoid cells in B-LBL typically express TdT, CD43, CD99 and HLA-DR and may occasionally express B-cell markers such as CD79a, CD19, CD22 and CD20. Surface immunoglobulin is usually absent; however, cytoplasmic μ heavy chains may be present. The present case showed diffuse positivity for CD20, CD99, Tdt and negativity for CD3 and MPO. The main differentials and histopathological features are enlisted in [Table 1].
Table 1: Histopathological diagnosis of B.cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

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Treatment of B-LBL includes aggressive multidrug systemic chemotherapy protocols. After completion of therapy, regular follow up is essential to monitor acute effects of the treatment and also to rule out relapse.[8] Our patient was advised chemotherapy; however, she was lost to follow up.


   Conclusion Top


This case is being reported in order to emphasize the consideration of B-LBL as a differential both clinically and morphologically in cases presenting with solitary benign-looking persistent cutaneous lesions over the head and scalp area in spite of its rare occurrence. It becomes imperative to give a timely diagnosis because this condition though aggressive, responds well to aggressive multiagent chemotherapy.[4]

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Lee WJ, Moon HR, Won CH, Chang SE, Choi JH, Moon KC, et al. Precursor B- or T-lymphoblastic lymphoma presenting with cutaneous involvement: A series of 13 cases including 7 cases of cutaneous T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014;70:318-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pathologic Classification Project. National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classifications of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: Summary and description of a working formulation for clinical usage. Cancer 1982;49:2112-35.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kawakami T, Kimura S, Kinoshita A, Kondo K, Soma Y. Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with only cutaneous involvement. Acta Derm Venereol 2009;89:540-1.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Burg G, Kempf W. Cutaneous Lymphomas (Basic and Clinical Dermatology). Marcel Dekker: New York; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
LeBoit P, editor. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Pathology and Genetics of Skin Tumors. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Carney JA, Stratakis CA. Epithelioid blue nevus and psammomatousmelanotic schwannoma: The unusual pigmented skin tumors of the Carney complex. Semin Diagn Pathol 1998;15:216-24.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sander CA, Flaig MJ, Jaffe ES. Cutaneous manifestations of lymphoma: A clinical guide based on the WHO classification. World Health Organization. Clin Lymphoma 2001;2:86-100.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Song H, Todd P, Chiarle R, Billett AL, Gellis S. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma arising from a long-standing lesion in a child and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol 2017;34:e182-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Boccara O, Laloum-Grynberg E, Jeudy G, Aubriot-Lorton M-H, Vabres P, de Prost Y, et al. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in children: A rare diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;66:51-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rashidghamat E, Robson A. Primary cutaneous precursor B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in a child, complicated by fatal disseminated varicella zoster virus. Clin Exp Dermatol 2015;40:839-43.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shafer D, Wu H, Al-Saleem T, Reddy K, Borghaei H, Lessin S, et al. Cutaneous precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in 2 adult patients: Clinicopathologicand molecular cytogenetic studies with a review of the literature. Arch Dermatol 2008;144:1155-62.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case history
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