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REVIEW ARTICLES - LAB
Chemical and physical basics of routine formaldehyde fixation
Rooban Thavarajah, Vidya Kazhiyur Mudimbaimannar, Joshua Elizabeth, Umadevi Krishnamohan Rao, Kannan Ranganathan
September-December 2012, 16(3):400-405
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.102496  PMID:23248474
Formaldehyde is the widely employed fixative that has been studied for decades. The chemistry of fixation has been studied widely since the early 20 th century. However, very few studies have been focused on the actual physics/chemistry aspect of process of this fixation. This article attempts to explain the chemistry of formaldehyde fixation and also to study the physical aspects involved in the fixation. The factors involved in the fixation process are discussed using well documented mathematical and physical formulae. The deeper understanding of these factors will enable pathologist to optimize the factors and use them in their favor.
  87 20,575 1,822
Toluidine blue: A review of its chemistry and clinical utility
Gokul Sridharan, Akhil A Shankar
May-August 2012, 16(2):251-255
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.99081  
Toluidine blue is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye with high affinity for acidic tissue components, thereby staining tissues rich in DNA and RNA. It has found wide applications both as vital staining in living tissues and as a special stain owing to its metachromatic property. Toluidine blue has been used in vivo to identify dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity. Use of toluidine blue in tissue sections is done with the aim to highlight components, such as mast cells granules, mucins, and cartilage. This article provides an overview on chemistry, technique, and the various applications of toluidine blue.
  80 17,651 2,397
REVIEW ARTICLES
Xylene: An overview of its health hazards and preventive measures
Reena Kandyala, Sumanth Phani C Raghavendra, Saraswathi T Rajasekharan
January-June 2010, 14(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.64299  PMID:21180450
Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon known for its wide usage in tissue processing, staining and cover slipping in the histology laboratory. The hazards of xylene are well documented, making it a potential occupational hazard for the histopathological technicians. As every other profession became cautious of the occupational hazards, the very speciality that identifies the illnesses became one of the last to become aware and remedy its own hazards. This review article aims to discuss the toxicity of xylene and safety measures to counteract the hazards and enlists the pros and cons of using various substitutes that claim to be much safer, better and faster.
  56 19,726 2,017
Oral lichen planus: An update on pathogenesis and treatment
N Lavanya, P Jayanthi, Umadevi K Rao, K Ranganathan
May-August 2011, 15(2):127-132
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.84474  
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the mucus membrane of the oral cavity. It is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease in which the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells trigger apoptosis of the basal cells of the oral epithelium. Several antigen-specific and nonspecific inflammatory mechanisms have been put forward to explain the accumulation and homing of CD8+ T cells subepithelially and the subsequent keratinocyte apoptosis. A wide spectrum of treatment modalities is available, from topical corticosteroids to laser ablation of the lesion. In this review, we discuss the various concepts in the pathogenesis and current treatment modalities of OLP.
  54 26,334 3,753
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
L Preeti, KT Magesh, K Rajkumar, Raghavendhar Karthik
September-December 2011, 15(3):252-256
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86669  
Recurrent aphthous ulcers are common painful mucosal conditions affecting the oral cavity. Despite their high prevalence, etiopathogenesis remains unclear. This review article summarizes the clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, and recent trends in the management of recurrent apthous stomatitis.
  47 20,411 2,667
Oral candidiasis: An overview
Arun Singh, Renuka Verma, Aditi Murari, Ashutosh Agrawal
September 2014, 18(4):81-85
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.141325  PMID:25364186
Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body.
  42 13,074 1,759
REVIEW ARTICLES - ETIOPATHOGENESIS
Oral pyogenic granuloma: Various concepts of etiopathogenesis
Reet Kamal, Parveen Dahiya, Abhiney Puri
January-April 2012, 16(1):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92978  
Pyogenic granuloma or granuloma pyogenicum is a well-known oral lesion. The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva commonly. Extragingivally, it can occur on the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, palate, and the like. A history of trauma is common in such sites. The etiology of the lesion is not known, though it was originally believed to be a botryomycotic infection. It is theorized that pyogenic granuloma possibly originates as a response of tissues to minor trauma and/or chronic irritation, thus opening a pathway for invasion of nonspecific microorganisms, although microorganisms are seldom demonstrated within the lesion. Pathogenesis of pyogenic granuloma is still debatable. Medline and PubMed databases were searched under the following key terms: Pathogenesis of oral pyogenic granuloma, pyogenic granuloma, and oral pyogenic granuloma. This search was limited to articles on human/animal studies which were published in English language. After reviewing the searched articles, the relevant articles were selected for the present review. Through this article, we have tried to summarize and present all the concepts of pathogenesis related to this most common and most mysterious oral lesion.
  42 13,297 2,523
REVIEW ARTICLES
Artefacts in histopathology
Shailja Chatterjee
September 2014, 18(4):111-116
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.141346  PMID:25364159
Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent.
  35 8,239 1,554
Cancer cachexia
Raghu Dhanapal, TR Saraswathi, N Govind Rajkumar
September-December 2011, 15(3):257-260
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.86670  
Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.
  32 8,749 937
Metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity
GS Kumar, BS Manjunatha
January-April 2013, 17(1):71-75
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.110737  PMID:23798834
Cancer is a disease involving complex multiple sequential irreversible dysregulated processes showing metastasis that results in morbidity and mortality. Metastasis is a complex biological course that begins with detachment of tumor cells from the primary tumor, spreading into the distant tissues and/or organs, invading through the lymphovascular structures followed by their survival in the circulation. Metastatic tumors to the oro-facial region are uncommon and may occur in the oral soft tissues or jawbones. The clinical presentation of metastatic tumors can be variable, which may lead to erroneous diagnosis or may create diagnostic dilemma. Therefore, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory and reactive lesions that are common to the oral region. Most of the literature on oral metastases involves either single case reports or reviews of these reported cases from scattered geographical areas. Hence this present article is an attempt to provide a detailed review of pathogenesis, epidemiological details including clinical and radiographic presentations, microscopic features and treatment of metastatic tumors to the jaws and oral cavity.
  28 9,304 1,528
MicroRNAs - Biology and clinical applications
Kannan Ranganathan, Vaishnavi Sivasankar
May-August 2014, 18(2):229-234
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.140762  PMID:25328304
MicroRNAs are a highly conserved group of small, non-coding RNA molecules, which are 19-25 nucleotides in size. Previously thought to be evolutionary debris with no evident function, these small RNAs have been found to control gene expression primarily by silencing the gene. MicroRNAs are critical to cell physiology and development. They are also implicated in pathological processes such as autoimmune diseases, viral infections and carcinogenesis.
  27 2,987 666
ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES - REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of artifacts in histopathology
Syed Ahmed Taqi, Syed Abdus Sami, Lateef Begum Sami, Syed Ahmed Zaki
May-August 2018, 22(2):279-279
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_125_15  PMID:30158787
Histopathological examination is considered as gold standard procedure for arriving at a final diagnosis of various lesions of the human body. However, it is limited by a number of alterations of normal morphologic and cytological features that occur as a result of presence of artifacts. These artifacts may occur during surgical removal, fixation, tissue processing, embedding and microtomy and staining and mounting procedures. They can even lead to complete uselessness of the tissue. It is therefore essential to identify the commonly occurring artifacts during histopathological interpretations of tissue sections. This article reviews the common artifacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artifact and tissue constituent.
  26 11,106 1,195
ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES - REVIEW ARTICLES
Cancer stem cells: An insight
Rohit Balwant Moharil, Alka Dive, Shubhangi Khandekar, Ashish Bodhade
September-December 2017, 21(3):463-463
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_132_16  PMID:29391738
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew and are present in most tissues including breast, brain, lung, head and neck, prostates, testis, ovary, esophagus, colon and liver. Their origin is yet to be discovered though a series of hypotheses have been proposed in this regard. CSCs play a role in not only the creation of cancer but also its evolution, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have an important role in cancer therapy and the resistance toward chemotherapeutic agents. This article reviews the characteristics of CSCs in terms of origin, methods of isolation and cancer therapy.
  24 3,647 447
REVIEW ARTICLES
Stem-cell therapy and platelet-rich plasma in regenerative medicines: A review on pros and cons of the technologies
Shwetha Hulimavu Ramaswamy Reddy, Roopa Reddy, N Chaitanya Babu, GN Ashok
September-December 2018, 22(3):367-374
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_93_18  PMID:30651682
Regenerative medicine encompasses new emerging branch of medical sciences that involves the functional restoration of tissues or organs caused by severe injuries or chronic diseases. Currently, there are two contending technologies that can repair and restore the damaged tissues, namely platelet-rich plasma (PRP)- and stem cell (SC)-based therapies. PRP is a component of blood that contains platelet concentrations above the normal level and includes platelet-related growth factors and plasma-derived fibrinogen. Platelets are the frontline healing response to injuries as they release growth factors for tissue repair. SCs, on the other hand, are the unspecialized, undifferentiated, immature cells that based on specific stimuli can divide and differentiate into specific type of cells and tissues. Differentiated SCs can divide and replace the worn out or damaged tissues to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with specialized functions. Despite these differences, both approaches rely on rejuvenating the damaged tissue. This review is focused on delineating the preparation procedures, similarities and disparities and advantages and disadvantages of PRP- and SC-based therapies.
  24 4,002 350
Epigenetics in oral squamous cell carcinoma
KN Hema, T Smitha, HS Sheethal, S Angeline Mirnalini
May-August 2017, 21(2):252-259
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_150_17  PMID:28932035
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral neoplasm, accounting for over 90% of all oral malignancies and 38% of head and neck tumors. Worldwide, OSCC is the eighth most common human cancer, with more than 500,000 new cases being diagnosed every year with a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Genetic and/or environmental risk factors associated with the development of oral cancer have been sufficiently understood (smoking, alcohol, betel, diet, living habits, etc.). Knowledge of the genetic basis in oral carcinogenesis is still a challenging task. To improve the diagnosis and prevention, a previously unknown type of chromatin modification, known as epigenetic, which is defined as heritable DNA changes that are not encoded in the sequence itself and which are reversible and increasingly appear to serve fundamental roles in cell differentiation and development are studied. Tumors shed their DNA into the blood and epigenetic changes that occur early during tumorigenesis, sometimes even in premalignant lesions, can provide valuable biomarkers. Key components involved in epigenetic regulation are DNA methylation, histone modifications and modifications in micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs). Epigenetic modifications may contribute to aberrant epigenetic mechanisms seen in oral precancers and cancers. In the near future, epigenetic variations found in oral dysplastic cells can act as a molecular fingerprint for malignancies.
  21 4,307 529
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of preprocedural rinse and high volume evacuator in reducing bacterial contamination in bioaerosols
TV Narayana, Leeky Mohanty, G Sreenath, Pavani Vidhyadhari
January-April 2016, 20(1):59-65
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.180931  PMID:27194863
Context: Microbial contamination, which occurs during dental procedures, has been a potential threat to dental professionals and individuals. There has been a growing concern over the role of bioaerosols in spread of various airborne infections and also to reduce the risk of bioaerosol contamination. Aims: This study was to analyze the number of colony forming units (CFUs) in bioaerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling procedure as well as to evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine 0.12% (CHX) preprocedural mouth rinse and high volume evacuator (HVE) in minimizing the bioaerosol contamination. Methods: About 45 individuals were divided into three Groups A, B and C. These groups underwent ultrasonic scaling before and after the use of CHX (0.12%), HVE and combination of CHX (0.12%) and HVE. Bioaerosols were collected on blood agar plates which were incubated at 37°C for 48 h, and the CFUs were counted with manual colony counting device. A comparison was also done between A versus B, B versus C and A versus C groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: We found a significant reduction in the CFUs when CHX (0.12%) preprocedural rinse (P < 0), or HVE (P < 0.001) or combination of both CHX (0.12%) and HVE were employed (P < 0.001). Maximum reduction in CFUs was observed when CHX (0.12%) and HVE were used in combination as compared to their individual use. A moderate significance was seen between A versus C groups but not with B versus C groups and A versus B groups. Conclusion: From our study, we conclude that individual methods such as CHX (0.12%) and HVE were useful to reduce the dental bioaerosols; however, combination of both CHX (0.12%) and HVE is more efficient to reduce dental bioaerosols than individual method.
  20 3,304 213
ONLINE ONLY ARTICLES - ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of relationship between dental caries, diabetes mellitus and oral microbiota in diabetics
Bhagyashri Ramachandra Latti, Jitendra V Kalburge, Sanjeev Bhimashankar Birajdar, Ramachandra Girimallappa Latti
May-August 2018, 22(2):282-282
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_163_16  PMID:30158791
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease leading to abnormal fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Reduced salivary flow rate caused by hyperglycemia is characteristic mainly for periods of poor metabolic control of diabetes, thereby facilitating the growth of aciduric bacteria and caries-lesion development. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes mellitus on dental caries micro-organisms responsible for caries. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 60 subjects consisting of 2 groups. The Group A (study group) consisted of 30 subjects with diabetes mellitus and dental caries, and the Group B (control group) consisted of 30 subjects with dental caries but no systemic disease. DFS/dfs index in all subjects was evaluated and compared. Unstimulated salivary flow was collected and levels of Streptococcus mutans were analyzed. Results: It was found that the fasting blood sugar in Group A subjects because of which there was increased streptococcus mutans count and hence high caries index as compared to that of Group B. Conclusion: From our study, we could conclude that with increased age, blood sugar levels, DMFT values, dental caries increases in diabetics than in normal (control) subjects and therefore relationship does exist between diabetis mellitus, oral microbiota and dental caries.
  19 3,714 376
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study on histological grading of oral squamous cell carcinoma and its co-relationship with regional metastasis
M Akhter, S Hossain, Quazi B Rahman, Motiur R Molla
May-August 2011, 15(2):168-176
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.84485  
Background: Histological grading is an important diagnostic tool to predict the clinical and biological behaviour of cancer. Cervical lymph node metastasis indicate poor prognosis of oral cancer. Considering economical status of a third world country, Anneroth's grading system is less expensive, more informative than TNM staging and Broder's grading system. Anneroth's grading system also shows co-relationship with lymph node metastasis. So we are trying to evaluate the Anneroth's grading as a standard one among these three system. Objective: To study the grading of histological malignancy according to Anneroth's classification of biopsy specimens in relation to metastasis in the cervical lymph nodes and comparing the Anneroth's with the other two recognized classifications. Materials and Methods: Fifty(50) patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma was included in the study. Specimen of 35 non-metastatic tumors were compared with 15 metastatic cases. All of the patients were graded to TNM, Broder's and Anneroth's system. TNM is clinical assessment and Broder's is based on only differentiation of cells. On the other hand, six parameters of Anneroth's gives a detail about the morphology of the tumor, invasion criteria in the host tissue and show its correlation with lymph node metastasis. Scoring system of Annearoth's grading indicates demarcation points of worseness of tumor and signifies the possibility of lymph node metastasis. Results: Both Anneroth's(P=0.002) and Broder's grading(P=0.012) have been significant but Anneroth's one is more significant then Broder's. Conclusion: Anneroth's classification can be taken as a standerd diagnostic factor and predictive factor of lymph node metastasis.
  18 15,354 1,766
Validation of immunoexpression of tenascin-C in oral precancerous and cancerous tissues using ImageJ analysis with novel immunohistochemistry profiler plugin: An immunohistochemical quantitative analysis
Deepa Rajesh Mane, Alka D Kale, Chetan Belaldavar
May-August 2017, 21(2):211-217
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_234_16  PMID:28932029
Background: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a molecular technique that has grown tremendously over the years. However, the assessment is only qualitative which is subjective and causes errors. Due to this limitation, several excellent markers have not gained importance and reached clinical trials. Hence, we aimed to quantify IHC by ImageJ analysis with a novel IHC profiler plugin. ImageJ has not been tried in oral precancerous tissues with minimal attempt for matrix markers. Aim: This study aimed to validate the quantification of immunoexpression of tenascin-C (TN-C) in oral precancerous tissues and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using ImageJ software with IHC profiler plugin. Materials and Methods: After IHC staining for TN-C and image acquisition, ImageJ analysis was performed as per the standard recommended algorithm. Assessment was done by two observers by blinding the histopathological diagnosis. The immunoscore was assessed for interobserver variability using Kohen's kappa statistics. Results: All our cases were in agreement and found to be statistically significant with P < 0.005. Moderate agreement was for mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia and oral lichen planus. Substantial agreement was for oral submucous fibrosis and OSCC and almost perfect agreement noted for cases of severe dysplasia. Conclusion: IHC can now be quantified using freely downloadable software ImageJ analysis in oral precancerous tissues and OSCC. This software with good threshold control can quantify matrix marker such as TN-C. Hence, herewith, we propose that IHC markers should be quantified using ImageJ by our entire oral pathology fraternity so as to have a standard immunoscore for all markers.
  18 3,900 259
REVIEW ARTICLES - STEM CELLS/GENETICS
A comprehensive review of the genetic basis of cleft lip and palate
Sarvraj Singh Kohli, Virinder Singh Kohli
January-April 2012, 16(1):64-72
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.92976  
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth. CLP has a multifactorial etiology, comprising both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the recent data on the etiology of cleft lip and palate. We conducted a search of the MEDLINE database (Entrez PubMed) from January 1986 to December 2010 using the key words: 'cleft lip,' 'cleft palate,' 'etiology,' and 'genetics.' The etiology of CLP seems complex, with genetics playing a major role. Several genes causing syndromic CLP have been discovered. Three of them-T-box transcription factor-22 (TBX22), poliovirus receptor-like-1 (PVRL1), and interferon regulatory factor-6 (IRF6)-are responsible for causing X-linked cleft palate, cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome, and Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes, respectively; they are also implicated in nonsyndromic CLP. The nature and functions of these genes vary widely, illustrating the high vulnerability within the craniofacial developmental pathways. The etiological complexity of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate is also exemplified by the large number of candidate genes and loci. To conclude, although the etiology of nonsyndromic CLP is still largely unknown, mutations in candidate genes have been identified in a small proportion of cases. Determining the relative risk of CLP on the basis of genetic background and environmental influence (including smoking, alcohol use, and dietary factors) will be useful for genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.
  18 9,321 1,092
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma
Smita Shrishail Birajdar, MB Radhika, K Paremala, M Sudhakara, M Soumya, Mohsin Gadivan
May-August 2014, 18(2):169-176
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.140729  PMID:25328294
Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC.
  16 3,663 438
REVIEW ARTICLES
Host defense peptides: An insight into the antimicrobial world
Shiva Gupta, Gouri Bhatia, Anamika Sharma, Sameer Saxena
May-August 2018, 22(2):239-244
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_113_16  PMID:30158778
A serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies has emerged due to rapid increase in drug-resistant infections creating an urge for the development of alternative therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained importance because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and mediator-like functions linking innate and adaptive immune responses. The multidimensional properties of these peptides hold promising potentials as prophylactic and antimicrobial agents. This review discusses various AMPs and their role in combating microorganisms and infections along with its clinical implication.
  16 2,414 253
Salivaomics: The current scenario
Sonalee Shah
September-December 2018, 22(3):375-381
DOI:10.4103/jomfp.JOMFP_171_18  PMID:30651683
For generations, blood has been the medium of choice for diagnosing most diseases and conditions. The reason for this is mainly the limitations of technology. The concept of oral diagnostics is preferred to more invasive methods. In recent years, it has become evident that the salivary constituents become detectably altered in response to certain disease states. Even so, what is most impressive is that salivary biomarkers not only arise in correlation with oral disorders but also those of distal tissues and organs. This suggests that oral fluids may represent a substantial reservoir of molecular and microbial information capable of communicating the onset or presence of disease throughout the body. An initiative of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research created a roadmap to achieve these goals whereby, with the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium, it would become possible to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of patients. The real promise of salivary analysis use is the ability of the patient or clinician to directly and continuously assess disease status, progression and therapeutic efficacy. The sensitive analysis may even allow presymptomatic diagnosis. There are five major diagnostic alphabets available in saliva namely, proteins, messenger RNAs, micro-RNAs (mi-RNAs), metabolic compounds and microbes which offer substantial advantages for salivary diagnostics because, the state of the disease may be associated with detectable changes in one, but not all, dimensions. Recently, the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) has been established by aligning the salivary biomarker discovery. The SKB constitutes data repository, management system and web resource fabricated to support human salivary proteomics, transcriptomics, miRNA, metabolomics and microbiome research.
  16 2,873 415
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of curcumin in the treatment for oral submucous fibrosis - A randomized clinical trial
Vinay K Hazarey, Aditee R Sakrikar, Sindhu M Ganvir
May-August 2015, 19(2):145-152
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.164524  PMID:26604488
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic, insidious disease that is associated with significant functional morbidity and an increased risk for malignancy. Turmeric and its active ingredient "curcumin'' are being studied upon as chemopreventive agents in various diseases. The present study aims to determine the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of OSF. Materials and Methods: Thirty clinically diagnosed OSF patients were divided into two groups, 15 patients in each group from the Outpatient Department. Test group patients were treated with Longvida (curcumin) lozenges and control group with Tenovate ointment (clobetasol propionate (0.05%). The treatment was given for 3 months duration and follow-up was done for 6 months. Both the groups were advised for physiotherapy exercises by mouth exercise device. The baseline and follow-up results were compared for IIO (interincisal distance on maximum mouth opening), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for normal food and VAS for spicy food. Results: The test group showed 5.93 (±2.37) mm increase in mouth opening compared to 2.66 (±1.76) mm of the control group. In relation to VAS scale with spicy and normal food the average reduction was 64 (42-73) and 77 (70.5-82) as compared to 34 (14.5-64.5) and 64 (46-75.5) respectively in control group. The test group results achieved in the treatment span was sustained in the follow-up (P < 0.05) compared to control group which showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) relapse. Conclusion: It can be concluded that combination strategies for the management of OSF which include the stoppage of causative ill habits, appropriate medicinal and physiotherapy management is more efficient than single therapeutic modality. It is evident from the study that curcumin holds good promise in the treatment of OSF in future.
  15 6,496 595
REVIEW ARTICLES - TUMOUR AND CYSTS
Osteosarcoma of jaws
Mayur Chaudhary, Shweta Dixit Chaudhary
May-August 2012, 16(2):233-238
DOI:10.4103/0973-029X.99075  
Tumors of jaw bones are among the most uncommon of all types of neoplasms. Osteosarcoma of jaw bones represents a distinct group of lesions from the conventional type commonly occurring in long bones. Nonetheless, our present knowledge of the tumor allows us to affirm that its clinical behavior and pathologic features differ markedly from those of its homolog in the long bones. The maxillary tumors show predilection for posterior portion of the alveolar process and the antrum, whereas the body is most commonly involved in the mandible followed, by angle, symphysis, and ascending ramus. We have reviewed around 300 cases of osteosarcoma of varied racial origin from PubMed indexed journals spanning from 1967 to 2010 and present their etiology, pathogenesis, features and treatment modalities.
  15 5,890 1,161
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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
Online since 15th Aug, 2007